Kidding on the Goat Farm - With Information on Rearing, Breeding and Feeding Kids
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Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. It is extremely difficult to present data collected from allover the world on the nutrient requirements of sheep and particularly of goats. For this reason as a general guide the recommended minimum requirements of sheep NRC, and goats NRC, are suggested. The energy requirements of sheep and goats are similar according to NRC For dry non-pregnant animals the maintenance requirements are 0.
The requirements for digestible crude protein range from 2. For each kg of goat milk or sheep milk 45—70 g or 60—90 g digestible crude protein are required, respectively. Possible physiological and behavioural factors for this ability of the goat have been indicated Louca et al. Inadequate nutrition, particularly of energy, depressed the reproductive performance of extensively H.
Sexual maturity of sheep and goats is advanced by good feeding Owen, and the energy stimulates oestrus activity within the normal breeding season, ovulation rate, fertilization and survival of ova and the maintenance of the resultant embryos to term as viable lambs Gunn, Body condition at mating, achieved over a longer period i. High producing dairy ewes or goats, require a dry period to achieve maximum prolificacy.
The level of feeding after weaning of female lambs or kids intended for replacements depends on the age at mating.
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This weight is accomplished with proper feeding and management at the age of 8—10 months in France, Norway and Cyprus Morand-Fehr, et at. Stress in pregnant goats during late pregnancy increased with increasing kidding percentage as indicated from the total birth weight of kids as a percentage of the dam's weight which was 8, Foetal energy requirements in the final stage of pregnancy are 1. This means that a 50 kg ewe carrying twins would have an energy requirement of about 2. However, high levels of feeding through pregnancy can lead to pregnancy toxaemia in sheep Orskov, and kidding difficulties.
The performance of Damascus goats in the last stages of pregnancy was similar with either medium Lactating sheep and goats have increased requirements for all nutrients. Different methods of estimating milk yield in sheep and goats have been developed which are useful in evaluating the results of various management systems. The lamb suckling technique or the use of oxytocin and milking have been widely used to obtain information in the non-dairy ewe Owen, whereas with dual purpose sheep and goats a combination of the suckling technique and milking until weaning is used Economides, Hand or machine milking after weaning have also been used Morag et al.
Energy intake is the most important factor determining milk production in intensive systems, particularly in the early stages of lactation in sheep and goats J.https://helmchasbasurcu.gq
Kidding on the Goat Farm - With Information on Rearing, Breeding and Feeding Kids
Flamant, et al. Morand-Fehr, et a!. Similarly under semi-arid conditions in Mexico Martinez-Parra et al. Under such conditions a protein supplement is also necessary. The weight gain of suckling lambs Owen, ; Economides, and kids Morand-Fehr et al. One unit of lamb liveweight gain results from 5 units of sheep milk consumed Economides, ; Robinson et al. Weaning of lambs and kids can take place from 4 weeks to 5 months of age, depending on the management system.
With either artificial rearing or natural suckling the success of early weaning systems onto solid food depends on the state of rumen development at weaning which is governed by the ingestion of solid feed.
Solid feed intake is negatively related to milk intake Economides, ; Owen et al. Good quality creep feed and roughage should be available to lambs and kids from the age of two weeks. When the milk supply of ewes or goats is inadequate or absent or when it is necessary to remove the progeny as part of the management system artificial rearing is practised. The lambs or kids are given colostrum within 6—10 hours after birth Peart, and weaning within 24 hours after birth is ideal; later weaning increases difficulties of training the lambs or kids to suck from teats. Milk substitute can be given warm or cold Penning et al.
Good milk replacers have conversion rates of milk solids into lamb gain of and for kids 1. With dual purpose systems and when artificial rearing is practised the amount of milk replacer fed until weaning is minimized, either with early weaning or restricted milk intake, in order to reduce feed and labour costs. When natural suckling is practised the adoption of early weaning and partial suckling with the objective of increasing commercial milk yields is of great importance. However, the growth of the offspring should not be affected by the lower milk consumption.
Goat Farming FAQ (frequently asked questions about goat farming)
A series of experiments carried out in Cyprus Louca, ; Lawlor et al. However, the beneficial effect of suckling did not extend beyond the time of weaning. A combination of partial suckling 12or 8 h vs 24 h a day and residual milking can maintain the amount of milk available for commercial purposes without affecting the lamb growth rate. Total milk yield of Damascus goats was not significantly affected by the length of the suckling period 2,35 or 70 days or suckling regime continuous or restricted but commercial milk yield was increased with either early weaning or restricted suckling.
However, the growth rate of kids either weaned at 35 days of age or partially suckled from 20 to 70 days of age was poorer than that of kids suckled ad libitum until the age of 70 days. Comparative trials with lambs and kids Economides, showed that lambs grow faster both before and after weaning. The kids could not be weaned as early as lambs and suffered a greater check in growth at weaning than lambs. The growth data and feed intake data suggested that the rumen of lambs develops and begins functioning earlier than kids. The performance of lambs grazing poor pastures is low because of low feed intake inadequate feed supply and low quality roughage resulting in low energy intake.
It is apparent that sheep and goat fattening must be based on diets of high energy concentration and adequate in protein. When urea was substituted for soyabean as the protein source for lambs carcass gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were reduced during the period from 2 weeks to 3 months of age. From 3 months of age to 45 kg liveweight only feed efficiency was reduced by urea Economides, The physical form of concentrate diets affects efficiency which is lower on a mash diet than on pelletted or whole grain diets for both lambs Economides, and kids Economides, The slaughter weight of lambs and kids depends on the desired carcass quality and on seasonal price trends and also on the liveweight which minimizes total cost per kg carcass.
Generally lambs are slaughtered at about half the mature weight of the parents, whereas in the United States lambs are slaughtered at even higher liveweights. The dressing percentage and chemical fat content were increased by fattening in the feedlot E. Gaili, et al. Goat carcasses have less fat than those of lambs E. Gaili, ; A. Kirton, Females have fatter carcasses, at the same liveweight, than males with castrates intermediate. Castration leads to reduced growth rate, a fatter carcass and reduced feed conversion efficiency Louca et al.
However, a taint of varying intensity was present in the meat of intact goats but not in that from the castrates. Where feeding conditions are good ram lambs and male kids can often be slaughtered before there is any need for castration. The aim in sheep and goat feeding is to feed as much forage as possible and satisfy the largest part of requirements. The quantity and quality of roughage available will determine the amount and type of supplement to be fed. The higher the quality of the roughage, the higher the intake and performance with sheep or goats on all roughage diets.
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The level of feed intake immediately after parturition is low but it increases steadily after parturition and maximum intake is reached 2—3 weeks after milk yield peaks. Small amounts of nitrogen soyabean meal or urea and energy grains increase both the roughage and the total digestible energy intake. With one lambing every year the time between weaning and mating should enable ewes to replenish losses from the previous lambing. It is not advisable to improve nutrition, for example before mating only, resulting in higher ovulation and conception rates without making provision for the additional nutritional needs in late pregnancy and early lactation.
The most criticial parts of the reproductive cycle must be corrected and not just at mating, or late pregnancy or early lactation.