VENICE AT WAR The great battles of the Serenissima

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Even better, all your national wonders will be readily available, and relatively cheap to construct! To offset this, you should aim at increasing the Population of your cities as much as possible, and use every other possible way to increase technological progress, such as spying and research agreements. La serenissima "the most serene" or "sublime" Republic of Venice was built on islands in a lagoon of the Adriatic Sea and became the greatest seaport of medieval and Renaissance Europe, the continent's commercial and cultural link with the East.

Settled initially by Roman refugees from German and Hun invasions, in AD the citizens of the city rose in rebellion against Byzantine rule, declared themselves a free republic, and elected the first of the doges that would administer the city-state. From the 9th through the 12th centuries Venice developed into a naval and commercial power that dominated the Mediterranean trade routes from the Levant and Orient, from Morocco and Spain. Venetian merchant-explorers fanned out across Asia and Africa, bringing ever more wealth to the city, as well as making it one of the cultural centers of Europe.

Venetian seamen would challenge both the Byzantine and Ottoman empires for supremacy along Mediterranean shores. Eventually, for reasons including the discovery of the New World and dynastic struggles among the European nations, Venice would decline in wealth, influence and power. In AD Napoleon conquered the city, and it would never again be an independent entity.

However, since then Venice has held an unrivaled place in the world's collective imagination.

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The spectacle of its canals, marbled churches, frescoed palaces, and magnificent works of art reflected in the sparkling waters of the lagoon basking under blue skies has made it one of the most romantic locales of modern civilization. Situated at the northeastern end of the Adriatic, Venice was built on an archipelago of small islands lying in the crescent-shaped Laguna Veneta.

The death of Venice? City’s battles with tourism and flooding reach crisis level

The lagoon is roughly 52 km 32 miles long, reaching from the marshes of Jesolo to the town of Chioggia at the southern end. The shallow waters of the lagoon are sheltered by a line of sandbanks with three gaps, permitting tidal flow and shipping passage into the city. The lagoon is divided into two zones: the living and the dead. The latter is comprised of salt inlets and marshes formed by the sedimentary deposits of the dozens of small streams and the rivers Po and Piave; the latter is the main portion of the lagoon, separated from the sea by the strip of land known as the Lido.

The climate of Venice is temperate, determined by the weather patterns of the Alps to the north and Adriatic to the south. Summers are marked by moderate temperatures, averaging in the 20s Celsius 80s Fahrenheit , and winter temperatures around 0 degrees Celsius in the 30s Fahrenheit , with frequent fog and mist.

Annual average rainfall is about mm 34 inches. Built upon for centuries, the islands of Venice have little native wildlife or vegetation remaining. While there are no records that detail the earliest settlement of Venice, Roman historians indicate that refugees from cities such as Padua, Aquileia and Treviso moved into the lagoon basin, displaced by the incursions of the Huns and Lombards in the 5th Century AD.

There the Romans mixed with the itinerant fishermen and salt miners to create villages on several of the islands. The founding of the city itself is generally accepted as the date of the dedication of its first Christian church, San Giacomo on the island of Rialto, in March The city was considered part of the Exarchate of Ravenna, which was overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Byzantine emperor in Constantinople.

In the turmoil, the citizens of the Venetian lagoon declared their independence and elected their own leader. Their choice, Ursus, was the first of an unbroken line of doges elected from the foremost families of the city. A long series of disputes among the powerful families over the role and rights of the doge did not halt the boom in trade for the new naval power. Protected by their fleet, Venetians established trading posts in the major Mediterranean ports, and wealth flowed into the city from as far as the Christian Slavic kingdoms to Moslem states in Spain and North Africa.

Turkish–Venetian War (–) - New World Encyclopedia

The increase in personal incomes led to stability by creating a broader ruling class capable of limiting the power of the doge, as well as giving rise to a sense of national identity. Despite efforts by various popes, by Charlemagne, and by King Pepin of Lombardy to curtail or end Venetian economic and military growth, the city prospered. In AD an episcopal see i. Two events marked the growing stature and influence of Venice more than any others during this period: the construction of St.

Mark's Basilica in AD to house supposed relics of St. Mark the Evangelist the city's patron saint stolen by Venetian merchants from Alexandria, and extensive fortifications were built on several islands to guard the lagoon and city.

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  • In the early s, the republic embarked on a massive shipbuilding program, centered on the Venetian Arsenal, a 45 hectares acre shipyard in the heart of the city; within a generation Venice had 36, sailors manning warships, the largest navy in the Mediterranean. By AD, Venice had seized a number of cities and established fortified outposts along the Adriatic coast in Dalmatia and Istria. A succession of expansionist doges also acquired territories on the mainland to the north, primarily to guarantee Venetian Alpine trade routes and secure a supply of wheat for the city.

    Having the most powerful navy in the Mediterranean and seeking to control the trade in salt, Venice acquired control of most of the islands in the Aegean from the declining Byzantine Empire, including Cyprus and Crete. By the standards of medieval Europe, Venetian rule of its territories was relatively enlightened, and the citizens of towns such as Bergamo, Brescia, Verona and Ragusa often enthusiastically supported Venice in its wars and ventures.

    Venice became an imperial power following the Fourth Crusade. The aged and blind but brilliant Doge Enrico Dandolo "took the cross" and brought Venice into the crusade, which saw Constantinople captured and sacked in April AD.

    The History of Venice: Rise of the Republic

    Before his death a year later, Dandolo played a key role in the subsequent treaty partitioning the Byzantine Empire, gaining new lands and trading concessions from both the Byzantines and the crusader states. Early in the Middle Ages, the government of the republic took on its enduring form. Similar in many ways to that of the Roman Republic, it was embodied in the Grand Council, an assembly of the members of the city's oldest and richest families. This council appointed all public officials and elected a Senate of to individuals.

    To handle vital matters of state, a ducal council, the Council of Ten which included the doge, was elected from the ranks of the Grand Council. Common citizens had the right, theoretically, to grant or deny approval of those nominated for the major posts, including the dogeship. The fall of Constantinople in AD to the Ottoman Turks brought Venice to the fore in the European resistance to their advances; the seizure of the Venetian city of Morea in gave the Turks access to the Adriatic itself and insured there would be no accord between the two empires.

    For the next century, even as the Ottomans strangled Venetian trade with the East and Africa, Venice was locked in a struggle with the Turks for dominance. The conflicts continued until the Battle of Lepanto, when the Venetian led Christian fleet decisively defeated a Turkish armada, in October Although the victory insured that the Ottomans would not spread into the West, it also marked the beginning of a long decline in Venetian fortunes. Nonetheless, the opulence and wealth of Venice was still renowned, and the nobles of Venice became the leading patrons of the Italian Renaissance that spanned the 14th through 16th centuries.

    Already a cosmopolitan city, Venice saw an influx of artists such as Titian and native-born talents such as Giovanni Bellini and Tintoretto, composers such as Gabrieli, and architects such as Longhena one of the greatest Baroque designers. At the same time, progressive scholars such as Galileo, who taught at the prestigious Padua University, found refuge in liberal Venice's territories. The newly invented printing press spread through Europe during this period, and by AD Venice was the printing capital of the world; the leading printer in the city, Aldus Manutius, created the first, affordable books, cheaper because of their paperbacks.

    Even as its political fortunes waned, Venice's cultural prominence waxed. As a traveler from Milan in the s wrote, Venice was "the most triumphant city I have ever seen A number of factors contributed to the decline of Venice. The Black Death devastated the city in , in through , and again in AD; the latter outbreak killed some 50, citizens, roughly a third of the city's population. Advances in shipbuilding and armaments by the nations of Portugal, England, Holland and Scandinavia rendered the republic's war-galleys and trading vessels obsolete.

    Meanwhile, Spain was bringing more wealth from the New World than Venice could hope to match. As Spain, France and the Holy Roman Empire fought for hegemony over the Italian peninsula, Venice's political influence dwindled, even as military matters drained the republic's coffers. By AD, these powers - together with the Papacy, Hungarians, Savoyards and Ferrarese - made common cause in the League of Cambrai against the long Venetian dominance of the Mediterranean.

    Venetian (Civ5)

    See also R. In return, the Venetian admiral, Foscolo, col- e la difesa del Levante, p. See also Setton, Venice, Austria and the Turks in the seventeenth century, p. I 73rr. The prisoners taken were augmented by the liberation of galley slaves, many of whom were Success emboldened the Venetians to send their fleet into the Dardanelles Italians. This was the fate of Venetian troops captured by the Turks. Rossi, Storia della marina dell' ordine di S.

    Milan: , p. Cugnoni, "Relazione del viaggio delle gale re pontificie in Levante 4; Anderson, Naval wars in the Levant, p. I'anno ", Bullettino Senese di Storia Pairia, , pp. A cannonball must have hit its powder magazine, for the galley Candia. The arrival of foreign contingents at the end of the war between France exploded and then sank, killing the admiral immediately and hundreds of men and Spain facilitated this. Almost 4, French and German troops appeared besides. The fleet withdrew from the straits soon after.

    In another engagement off under the Papal flag.

    History and culture

    A thousand regular Piedmontese troops joined the operation the Spalmadori islands, the allied fleet destroyed a few more Turkish ships, but at too, under the Marchese Villa. An open market was gradually developing by a cost of almost killed and wounded. The Turks began to coffers while keeping precious troops and officers occupied and experienced. Most construct stronger fortresses at the entrance to the straits and increased the of these princes were German, although the dukes of Piedmont and Modena also garrisons there, preventing the Catholic fleets from taking on water.

    That put the participated in a modest way. Venetian fleets Duke Johann-Friedrich of Lunenburg.